Bring 3 quarts of water to a boil. Drop in the cauliflower florets and 2 tablespoons of the salt; cook until tender-crisp, about 3 minutes, then drain and shock in ice water; drain again.
Place the cauliflower florets in a bowl. Add the remaining 1/2 teaspoon of salt, the vinegar, olive oil, pepper, olives, capers, gherkins, parsley, and anchovies, and set aside to marinate, tossing once in a while, for 1 hour to 6 hours at room temperature.
Sprinkle with the hard-boiled eggs and enjoy. Serves 6.