Heat olive oil in heavy large pot over medium-high heat. Add kielbasa; sauté until beginning to brown, about 12 minutes. Using slotted spoon, transfer kielbasa to bowl. If necessary, add enough oil to pot to measure 2 tablespoons (or discard all but 2 tablespoons drippings). Add onions, both bell peppers, and garlic. Sauté until beginning to brown, about 10 minutes. Add beans, broth, tomatoes with juice, chili powder, sugar, vinegar, bay leaves, oregano, and cumin. Bring chili to a boil, stirring occasionally. Reduce heat to medium, cover, and simmer 30 minutes. Return kielbasa to pot. Reduce heat to low. Simmer, uncovered, until chili is thick, stirring occasionally, about 30 minutes. Season with salt and pepper. (Can be made 1 day ahead. Cool slightly; cover and chill. Rewarm before serving.).
Ladle chili into bowls. Top with sour cream and green onions if desired.