In the basket of a salad spinner, toss the cabbage with the 3 tablespoons of salt. Let sit for 1 to 1 1/2 hours. The idea is to draw out some of the water inside the cabbage and make it less crunchy, but not to let it get too salty. Once the cabbage has given up a about a quarter cup of water and looks wet, it's time to rinse (Step 7).
Meanwhile, heat the canola oil in a medium saucepan. Once the oil starts to shimmer, add the peanuts. Cook over medium heat until the peanuts begin to toast and turn brown. Take the pan off the heat and fish out the peanuts, saving them to put in the salad later.
Return the oil to the heat and add the garlic. Saute for 1 - 2 minutes, or until fragrant (but not burned - if the garlic and ginger start to turn brown, add some water to the pan - when it cooks off, the garlic and ginger will be cooked through). Add the mustard, peanut butter, and garlic chili paste. Whisk to combine.
Add the soy sauce and brown sugar while whisking over medium heat. Keep whisking until the sugar is fully dissolved (just a minute or two) then add the orange juice. Remove from heat.
Add the vinegar, Sesame oil, and pepper to taste (you probably won't need to add any extra salt).
Pour the dressing into a measuring cup or bowl, cover, and cool in the fridge until ready to add to the salad.
Rinse the cabbage in several changes of cold water, or until it does not taste overly salty. Dry in the salad spinner and pour into mixing bowl.
Sprinkle the crumbled ramen noodles, green onions, chicken, and orange segments on top of the cabbage. Pour half of the dressing over the top, toss to combine.
Allow diners to drizzle the remaining dressing over their own salads to taste. Bon Appetit!