Heat oven to 425 degrees F. Oil a 9-inch springform pan. Arrange half the butternut squash in the bottom of the pan, in concentric circles. Top with half the onion, separating the rings. Top with half the kale, drizzle with half the oil and season with 1/4 tsp salt. Top with the potatoes and half the provolone cheese.
Top with remaining kale, drizzle with the remaining oil and season with 1/4 tsp each salt and pepper. Top with the remaining onion, tomatoes and provolone. Arrange the remaining squash on top and sprinkle with the Parmesan.
Cover with foil, place on baking sheet and bake for 20 minutes. Remove foil and bake until the vegetables are tender and the top is beginning to brown, 8 to 10 minutes more.