Heat oven to 425°F Oil a 9" springform pan. Arrange half the butternut squash in the bottom of the pan in concentric circles. Top with half the onion, separating the rings. Top with half the kale, drizzle with half the oil, and season with 1/4 tsp salt. Top with the potatoes and half the provolone cheese.
Top with remaining kale, drizzle with remaining oil, and season with remaining salt and pepper. Top with the remaining onion, tomatoes, and provolone. Arrange the remaining squash on top and sprinkle with the Parmesan.
Cover with foil, place on baking sheet and bake for 20 minutes. Remove the foil and bake until the vegetables are tender and the top is beginning to brown, 8 to 10 minutes more.