In a small saucepan over medium heat, boil the wine until reduced to 1/2 cup, 7 to 10 minutes. Set aside.
In a soup pot over medium heat, warm the olive oil. Add the sausage and cook until browned, about 5 minutes per side. Transfer to a plate and let cool, then cut diagonally into 1/2-inch slices.
In the same pot over medium-low heat, cook the onion, celery, carrot and leek, stirring occasionally, until soft, about 10 minutes. Add the garlic and thyme and cook, stirring occasionally, for 2 minutes more. Add the reduced wine, the stock and water, increase the heat to medium-high and simmer for 15 to 20 minutes. Add the sausage, white beans and chard and cook until the chard wilts, 5 to 8 minutes. Season with salt and pepper.
Ladle the soup into warmed bowls, and garnish with the cheese. Serve immediately.