Arrange a rack in the center of the oven; reheat to 400°.
Trim excess fat from the chicken and season it inside and out with 1 teaspoon salt.
Scatter the onions, carrot, parsnips, sage, cloves, and cinnamon stick in a 6-quart ovenproof pot (such as an enameled cast iron pot); sprinkle over this the rest of the salt, and set the chicken on top of the vegetables.
Put the pot on the stove, pour in the stock, beer, and apple cider, and bring to a simmer over medium heat.
Cook, uncovered, for about 15 minutes on top of the stove.
Put the pot in the oven, and roast the chicken for about 30 minutes, basting with the pan juices two or three times.
Cover the chicken with a sheet of foil to prevent overbrowning, and roast another 30 minutes.
Remove the foil, and roast another 20-30 minutes, basting frequently, until the chicken and vegetables are cooked through and tender.
Remove the chicken to a warm platter, and surround with the vegetables.
Bring the pan juices to a boil on top of the stove, and cook until reduced by half.
Carve the chicken at the table, and spoon some of the pan juices on top.