To make dressing: Crush peeled garlic through garlic press into a 2-cup glass jar with a lid. Add remaining dressing ingredients, 1 tablespoon cold water, 1/2 teaspoon salt and pepper. Cover tightly and shake well or stir to combine.
Place sliced romaine in a large bowl. Drizzle on 1/4 cup of dressing. Sprinkle on cheese. Drizzle on a little more dressing if necessary and toss to combine. Divide onto salad plates. Sprinkle with croutons and serve. Refrigerate remaining dressing in a closed container for up to 2 weeks.