Cook the pasta in boiling salted water according to the package directions.
While the pasta is cooking, heat the olive oil in a large skillet over medium-high heat; add the garlic and chicken cubes. Saute until the chicken is cooked through and lightly browned, about 5 minutes. Using a slotted spoon, transfer the chicken to a bowl and set aside.
Pour the wine into the skillet and allow it to boil briefly, while scraping the brown bits from the bottom with a wooden spoon. Add the artichokes, dried tomatoes, green onions, and lemon zest. Cook over medium heat for 3 minutes, stirring gently from time to time.
Return the chicken to the skillet, add the cheese, and stir to combine. Season to taste with salt and pepper.
Transfer the sauce to a large serving bowl; add the drained cooked pasta and the basil and toss to combine well. Serve immediately in large, shallow bowls. Pass additional grated cheese at the table.