In a skillet, cook the garlic in the oil over moderately low heat, stirring, for 1 minute. Add the onion and cook, stirring, until the onion is softened. Add the bell peppers, cook the mixture over moderate heat, stirring, for 5 minutes, or until the peppers are just tender, add the wine and olives.
Boil the wine until it is reduced by half, season the mixture with salt and pepper to taste and stir in the basil.
In a pot of salted cooking water, cook the pasta 8 to 10 minutes or until al dente. Drain well, reserving 2/3 cup of the cooking water.
In a serving bowl, whisk 2/3 of the goat cheese with the reserved cooking water until the cheese is melted and the mixture is smooth. Add the pasta and the bell pepper mixture and toss well.
Sprinkle the pasta with the remaining goat cheese.