Heat 1 1/2 tablespoons oil in a large heavy pot over medium-high heat. Season meat with salt and pepper. Working in 2 batches and adding remaining 1 1/2 tablespoons oil between batches, add meat and sear, turning occasionally, until browned on all sides, about 5 minutes. Transfer meat to a plate.
Stir in garlic, chiles, and ginger and cook, stirring often, until fragrant, about 2 minutes. Add 1 teaspoons pepper and turmeric; cook, stirring constantly, until fragrant, about 1 minute. Add broth and reserved meat; bring to a boil, scraping up any browned bits from the bottom of pot. Reduce heat to medium-low, cover pot, and simmer, stirring occasionally, until beef is tender, about 45 minutes.
Add carrots, potatoes, and onions. Cover and simmer, stirring occasionally, until vegetables are tender, 15–20 minutes. Stir in coconut milk.