Soak beans in at least 1 inch of water in small saucepan overnight (or boil for 1 minute, remove from heat, and let stand covered 1 hour).
Cook bacon in large pot over medium heat. Remove all but 2 T. of the fat; leave bacon in pot. Add oil and heat over medium heat. Add garlic and parsley; saute until lightly colored, about 2 minutes. Add onion and saute 1 minute. Add 3 quarts water, the carrots, zucchini, tomatoes, and drained navy beans. Season with salt and pepper. Heat to boiling. Reduce heat and simmer uncovered 1 to 1-1/2 hours.
Add cabbage and simmer 20 minutes. Add pasta and simmer until tender, about 10 minutes.
Taste and adjust seasonings. Ladle soup into wide bowls. Sprinkle with Parmesan and basil.