Heat a medium skillet over medium-high heat and add the olive oil. When the oil is hot, add the ground beef and cook, crumbling it with a wooden spoon, until well browned and cooked through, about 6 minutes. Drain off and discard any excess fat. Return the skillet to the heat, add the chili powder, garlic powder and 1/2 teaspoon salt and stir to incorporate. Add the adobo sauce and 2 tablespoons water. Cook 1 minute to blend the flavors, then remove from the heat.
Meanwhile, combine the beans and salsa in a small saucepan. Bring to a simmer and cook until thickened, 4 to 5 minutes. Keep warm.
Brush a 12-inch cast-iron skillet with oil. Cut six 2-inch snips in the pizza with scissors, spaced evenly around the edge. Fit the pizza into the oiled cast-iron skillet, pressing the edges to make a deep-dish-type crust. Bake the pizza until heated through and the cheese is just melted, about 10 minutes.
Remove the pizza from the oven, top with the beans and ground beef and sprinkle with the Cheddar. Return to the oven and bake until the edges of the crust are golden brown and the cheese is melted and bubbly, 5 to 6 minutes more. Let stand for 5 minutes.
Top with dollops of sour cream and guacamole and sprinkle with cilantro leaves. Cut into wedges in the skillet and serve with a pie server.