Combine 1 cup sugar with 3/4 cup water in a saucepan and bring to the boil. Boil for 5 minutes, then reduce heat and simmer for 5 minutes, or until slightly thickened. Add honey, lemon juice, and rose water, continue simmering 2 minutes, then remove from heat and allow to cool.
Meanwhile, shell the pistachios if they are not already shelled (you will need 9 oz after shelling). Chop finely (food processor is highly recommended). Combine the chopped nuts with 1 tbsp sugar, the cinnamon, and the cardamom in a bowl and set aside.
Preheat the oven to 325°F.
Trim the filo to lay flat in the bottom of a loaf pan. Melt the butter and brush the sides of the loaf pan with some of the melted butter. Add the first sheet of trimmed filo and brush it with butter. Continue adding sheets of filo and brushing with butter until 10 sheets have been added (brush the top sheet with butter too).
Add half of the nut mixture and spread evenly on top of the filo.
Place another sheet of filo on top of the nuts and carefully brush with butter (it will be loose, be careful you don't tear it). Repeat until you have 5 layers on top of the nut mixture.
Add the rest of the nuts and spread evenly.
Continue layering more filo and butter until you have about 10 sheets of filo on top of the nuts.
Cut the baklava into 16 pieces by cutting in half the long way and then cutting into 8ths the short way.
Bake for 30 minutes, then reduce heat to 300 F and bake another 30 minutes.
Remove from the oven, re-cut the baklava, and then pour the sugar syrup on top of the baklava. Do this immediately, do not let the baklava cool before pouring on the syrup.
Allow the baklava time to cool to room temperature (and to absorb the syrup) before eating. It should cool for at least an hour.