Bring a large pot of salted water to boil, add the pasta and cook according to the package directions, usually about 10 minutes. Drain the pasta, toss with a teaspoon or two of olive oil and keep covered either in a large covered serving bowl or the cooking pot. While your pasta is boiling, prepare the other ingredients/.
Tempeh: Place the tempeh in a large, nonstick skillet. In a measuring cup, whisk together the vegetable broth, tomato paste, soy sauce, garlic, fennel seeds, red pepper flakes, and oregano. Pour over the tempeh, stir to coat, and cook over medium heat until the liquid starts to simmer. Cover the pan and steam the tempeh for 8 minutes, or until most of the liquid is absorbed and the tempeh is tender. Stir a few times while tempeh is steaming.
Transfer the tempeh to a bowl and crumble about half the cubes with the back of a spoon.
Wipe down the skillet to remove any leftover tempeh sauce, return the skillet to medium heat and add 2 tablespoons olive oil. To test the heat, drop a bit of tempeh into the oil- when it sizzles, the oil is hot enough. Add the tempeh and stir-fry for 4 to 5 minutes, until it begins to brown. Remove from heat, add to the pasta, and keep covered.
Broccoli rabe: Pour the remaining olive oil into the pan and add the sliced garlic. When the garlic begins to sizzle, stir and cook it for about a minute. Add the broccoli rabe, stir to coat it with the oil, sprinkle with a little salt, and cover the pan. Cook for about 2 minutes. Sprinkle with 2 tablespoons of the white wine and steam for 8 to 10 minutes, until the broccoli rabe is bright green and its stems are tender (you may need to do this in 2 batches, just add the second batch of broccoli rabe when the first batch has wilted enough to leave room in your pan).
Remove the cover and continue to saute for an additional minute or two, until any excess liquid is evaporated. Pour the cooked broccoli rabe onto the tempeh and pasta, sprinkle with red wine vinegar, season with salt and pepper, and toss everything to mix.