1. Cook bacon in Dutch oven over medium heat until crisp, about 8 minutes. Transfer bacon to paper towel-lined plate. Cook onions, peppers, and jalapeños in bacon fat until softened, about 8 minutes. Transfer half of sautéed vegetables to medium bowl, wrap with plastic, and reserve in refrigerator. Add chili powder, cumin, and oregano to pot with remaining vegetables and cook until deeply fragrant, about 2 minutes. Add garlic and cook until fragrant, about 30 seconds. Stir in water, broth, 2 teaspoons salt, dried beans, ham, and crisp bacon. Bring to boil and let simmer 15 minutes.
2. Transfer bean mixture to slow cooker and arrange piece of aluminum foil on surface of liquid. Cover and cook on low until beans are tender, 7 to 9 hours (or cook on high 4 to 6 hours).
3. Remove lid, discard foil, and transfer ham to cutting board. Stir tomatoes into slow cooker, cover, and cook on high until tomatoes soften, about 20 minutes. Meanwhile, transfer canned beans to bowl and mash with potato masher until rough paste forms. Chop (or shred) ham into bite-sized pieces. Stir mashed beans, ham, lime juice, and refrigerated vegetables into slow cooker. Cook, covered, until heated through, about 5 minutes. Season with salt. Serve.