Day before, pick over chickpeas and turn into a large bowl; cover with cold water; refrigerate, covered, overnight. Next day, drain chickpeas; turn into a large kettle. Add 2 quarts cold water, 2 t. salt, the quartered onion and bay leaf. Bring to boiling and reduce heat. Simmer, covered, 1-1/2 to 2 hours, or until tender; drain; set aside. Remove and discard onion and bay leaf.
Meanwhile, rinse chicken well; dry with paper towels. Sprinkle inside with 1 t. salt. Tuck w ings under body; then tie legs together at ends with twine. If necessary, fasten skin at neck with a skewer.
In a small bowl, combine garlic, ginger, 1/2 t. salt, the pepper and 1 T. water; mix well. Brush mixture over entire surface of chicken. Refrigerate chicken in large bowl, covered with plastic wrap or foil, one hour.
In 6-quart Dutch oven, combine chopped onion, turmeric, chopped parsley, cinnamon stick, butter and chicken broth. Over medium heat, bring to boiling, stirring constantly. Lower heat; then add chicken, breast side down, and any juices left in bottom of the bowl.
simmer, covered, 1 hour, or until chicken is tender. (Turn chicken frequently in the sauce, using two wooden spoons.) Remove cooked chicken to warm serving platter. Discard cinnamon stick.
To liquid left in Dutch oven, add slice onion, raisins and drained chickpeas. Bring to boiling; cook, stirring frequently with wooden spoon, until onion is soft and flavors have blended - about 15 minutes.
Before serving, remove twine. Reheat chicken in chickpea mixture for 5 minutes. Serve chicken and chickpeas together.