Toss shrimp with sherry and soy sauce in medium bowl; marinate until shrimp have absorbed flavors, about 10 minutes. Mix garlic, ginger and 1 tbsp oil in small bowl; set aside. Combine peanuts and chiles in small bowl; set aside. Mix chicken broth, vinegar, sesame oil, oyster-flavored sauce, hoisin sauce and cornstarch in small bowl or measuring cup; set aside.
Heat 1 tbsp oil in 12 inch skillet over high heat until just beginning to smoke. Add shrimp and cook, stirring about once every 10 seconds, until barely opaque, 30 to 40 seconds; add peanuts and chiles, stir into shrimp and continue cooking until shrimp are almost completely opaque and peanuts have darkened slightly, 30 to 40 seconds longer.
Transfer shrimp, peanuts and chiles to bowl; set aside. Return skillet to burner and reheat briefly, 15 to 30 seconds. Add remaining 1 Tbsp oil , swirl to coat pan and add red bell pepper; cook, stirring occasionally until slightly softened, about 45 seconds.
Clear center of pan, add garlic-ginger mixture, mash into pan with spoon or spatula and cook until fragrant, 10 to 15 seconds; stir into peppers until combined. Stir broth mixture to recombine, then add to skillet along with reserved shrimp, peanuts and chiles; cook, stirring and scraping up browned bits on bottom of pan until sauce has thickened to syrupy consistency, about 45 seconds.
Stir in scallions; transfer to serving plate and serve immediately.