Preheat the oven to 450 degrees. Place rack in middle of oven.
Sift flour, baking powder, baking soda, and salt together into a large bowl. Stir in the grated cheese (reserving 2 tablespoons for the topping) and black pepper. Add the butter pieces to the flour and cut it into the flour with two knives, or with your fingers, moving quickly before the butter gets soft. When mixture is the size of peas, pour in the buttermilk, add the sausage, and stir with a wooden spoon just until the dough is one piece.
If the dough is overworked, the biscuits will be tough.
Turn the dough onto a lightly floured, dry work surface. With a wooden rolling pin, roll the dough into a rectangle at least 1/2" thick. Use a biscuit cutter to cut rounds of dough. Gently push the dough out of the biscuit cutter and place on an ungreased cookie sheet.
If not baking immediately, cover with plastic wrap and refrigerate for several hours, or overnight.
Sprinkle the biscuits with the reserved grated cheese and bake for 15-18 minutes, until the biscuits have risen and the tops are lightly browned. Serve hot.