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    You are in: Home / Community Forums / Middle East & North Africa / Ancient Egyptian Women
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    Ancient Egyptian Women

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    Susie D
    Sat Jun 25, 2005 8:09 am
    Forum Host
    Walk Like An Egyptian

    While the concept of a career choice for women is a relatively modern phenomenon, the situation in ancient Egypt was rather different.
    For some three thousand years the women who lived on the banks of the Nile enjoyed a form of equality which has rarely been equaled. This challenge is to create & tell the story of a fictional woman in Ancient Egypt and incorporate art & zaar recipes to illustrate her story.

    Interesting Links:
    The article this challenge is based on.:
    Women in the ancient world:
    Ancient cosmetics & fragrances:
    Food history:

    This is part of the Food, Friends, & Fun game played alongside RSC #7. We hope you take a look at the contest entries and select a few to review. We need help in determining the winning recipes.
    Sat Jun 25, 2005 10:01 am Groupie
    Whilst the concept of a career choice for women is a relatively modern phenomenon, the situation in ancient Egypt was rather different. For some three thousand years the women who lived on the banks of the Nile enjoyed a form of equality which has rarely been equalled. Well, I for one, which that we Egyptians had not come up with this concept!!!! Let me tell you a few facts about all this equality!!!

    At an early age of 13, I am now ready to take on my place in society, and marry a young man, usually just a few years older than myself. Of course, you realize that children are a sign of status, so I am expected to start bearing children right away......Now that sounds real equal doesn't it!!!! You get me preggers.....I bear the children!!!! Of course, I'll be lucky of I don't die in childbirth before the age of 21!!!

    I really think you modern people have gotten a better handle on this concept than we have!!!

    But, we did have a better feel for taking care of our skin than you modern people. We learn at a very eary age that we must protect our skin from the harsh we used many hand made products to take care of ourselves. Such as Beauty Water #73290 . Cosmetics were an inherent part of Egyptian hygiene and health. Oils and creams were used for protection against the hot Egyptian sun and dry winds. Myrrh, thyme, marjoram, chamomile, lavender, lily, peppermint, rosemary, cedar, rose, aloe, olive oil, sesame oil and almond oil provided the basic ingredients of most perfumes that were used in religious ritual and embalming the dead (Cohen) For lips, cheeks and nails, a clay called red ochre was ground and mixed with water. Henna was used to dye fingernails yellow or orange. Makeup was stored in special jars that were kept in special makeup boxes. Women would carry their makeup boxes to parties and keep them under their chairs.

    So, you see, we used our make-up for protection as much as beauty. Modern people had forgotten that, but I see that now, you are beginning to see that we knew what we were talking about.....but I sure am glad that you have learned to use make-up in moderation....we didn't quite get that part!!!

    We also loved fresh foods...none of that processed stuff for us!

    My favorites, of course, are the fresh fruits and veggies, and lamb for protein. Gives you a lot of enery for running after all those children. A couple of my favorites are Vegetable Kabobs With Seasoned Butter Sauce #108165 and Roast Leg of Lamb #4873 . We needed all those fruits, veggies and protein to run after all those children that were building our status in society!!! And as I see, you modern folks are still eating pretty healthy, or at least beginning to eat healthy again!!!

    So, as you can see, my day is not much different from you modern women....I get up, take my bath, put on my make-up, get the children ready for their day (this is a picture of us dressed in all our finery),
    go to work, come home, clean the home, grind the grain prepare the food, then get ready for bed . I did mention that having children is a sign of status in our society, right?!?!?!?!

    ThJQ icon_smile.gif The Sailing Kalamatas
    Sat Jun 25, 2005 11:15 am
    Forum Host
    Once upon a time during the 20th Dynasty in Egypt there was a
    beautiful young girl named Nefetari.

    Being the daughter of nobility, Nefetari was expected to be
    the most beautiful girl in the village. Each morning Nefetari would
    bathe in Coconut Bath, and apply Cucumber Hair Drench to her long flowing golden tresses; which she kept golden by using Sunkissed Blonde Highlights. Her complexion was fair and flawless because she ritually applied Ginger Skin Cream, every nite.

    Nefetari was so beautiful that she attracted the attention of the
    Pharaoh Ramesses IV.

    Ramesses wanted to marry Nefetari and have lots and lots of little
    Nefetari tried to cook, clean, play the harp

    to entertain and take care of the little pharaohs, but she was never
    able to perfect Ramesses favourite meal of Greek Mac'N'Cheese and Midori MaiTai and she liked having a chat with her girl friend much more than spending time in the kitchen
    Ramesses request to stay married. Ramesses tried to lure Neferati to be his true love by giving her the gift of prophesy, but Neferati continued to reject Ramesses. He was so angry by this rejection that he cursed Neferati to never be believed.

    Neferati didn’t care, she thought there was no greater gift than the
    gift of her beauty.
    She thought that she would never grow old, wrinkled or saggy. And
    unfortunately Neferati was right. Alas, she died a beautiful, young women when she was murdered in a fit of jealous rage by a spurned lover, Reneb, who refused to believe that she had just gone to the corner store to buy a loaf of bread.

    Neferatilife is a great tragedy and there is a lesson to be learned.

    The moral of the story: It is better to grow old, wrinkled & saggy
    than to die young and beautiful or don’t go out to buy bread. There are to many great bread recipes on Zaar.

    Cheesy Flat Bread and Moroccan Bread to mention a few.

    The Greece Monkeys.
    Sat Jun 25, 2005 12:38 pm
    Forum Host
    GORGEOUS GREEK GODDESSES are proud to present.....

    My name is Netikerty and I live in Heliopolis, with my husband Wosret, and our two children, Ahmose, our daughter and, Wahankh, our son.

    I am fairly typical, I would say. My husband is a professional soldier, and we also earn income from land we have outside of town. We have a few Nubian slaves who work the fields there, and so we are able to afford a good life.

    Wosret and I got married when I was 14 and he was 22. It was love at first sight! I had intended to be a doctor (oh yes! women of my class are quite well-educated and share equal rights with men) but matrimony won out. I had my daughter when I was 15 and my son 3 years later. Here's a close-up of me now - I'm 27 years old - getting on...I guess I'm going to be a granny soon. icon_lol.gif

    I love to cook! I have a very state-of-the art clay oven which I'm really proud of! It took 2 Nubian workers the best part of a week to build it and get it functioning properly.

    Wosret and the children say I can make the most delicious meals in it...they flatter me, but I do have a few specialities...I'm posting Ahmose's and Wahankh's favourite as I just made it and we have quite a lot!


    2lbs cream of wheat
    2.5 cups sugar
    3/4 lb. butter
    16 oz. plain yogurt
    slivered almond halves

    Bring all ingredients to room temperature. In a large bowl mix sugar and cream of wheat. Add butter, mix by hand, rubbing the buuter, sugar and cream of wheat between your palms for 10 minutes or more until the mixture is very well blended.

    Add the yogurt and mix with your hands until the dough feels smooth in your hand. If it feels dry add one tablespoon at a time of water so when you hold it in your hands it feels like pie dough.

    Butter a 13x9x2" pan and pat the dough into the pan with your hand. With a sharp knife slice the dough in 2 x 2 inche squares or into diamond shapes.

    Press one almond half onto the surface of each piece. Bake at 350 degrees for 30-40 minutes or until golden brown.

    Ahmose always eats this in her favourite bowl - quite lovely actually - we bought it in the souk a couple of years ago...

    We have a really brilliant artisan community in our city, as you can see. icon_lol.gif

    Wosret's favourite dish is Egyptian Fava Bean Dip(Ful Mudammes)

    Personally, I'm partial to Egyptian Salad as we get such great produce from along the fertile banks of the Nile. It's very delicious and refreshing - you should try it! icon_lol.gif

    I do have one more recipe for you - but it's not for food. We take our appearance very seriously here in Egypt (I spend hours a day on my face, hair, and clothes!). This is my absolute favourite thing to do every week or so...Egyptian Face Mask - I feel so relaxed and look so good after this mask - Wosret comes home and, well, let's just say that he requests his own special treatment. icon_wink.gif

    Wosret and I have put some savings aside for a very important event in our lives - our deaths!

    We have commissioned for a special tomb to be built. Lovely, isn't it?

    and have also ordered 'his' and 'her' caskets...

    The Funeral Orchestra will be playing I Just Died In Your Arms Tonight on the way to the Wosret romantic, or what? icon_lol.gif

    Well, you probably know more about me than you ever wished to. I apologize if I have used your time up frivolously. You are all cordially invited to come and share a bowl of ful with Wosret, the children and myself and, have fun with RSC 7! icon_lol.gif
    Sat Jun 25, 2005 3:35 pm Groupie
    Call me Queen Hammertoe. My name was originally Bertha but as you can see from this picture… this dude kept stepping on my foot.

    Now I am carried everywhere and my loyal subjects honored me with this new name and correct spelling.

    On one long march, one of my chair carriers tripped and I fell off my chair and hurt my back. This is the exercise my physician insisted on.

    I am woman, hear me roar. All who exist must bow to me when I pass. I lead an army of men and women to conquer other lands so I may become wealthier and, my musicians serenade us while we are at rest.

    The royal food cooker prepares sumptuous meals from the ingredients my slaves have transported.

    East African Pea Soup recipe #87002 by hudelei

    Egyptian Fried Liver (Kibda Skandrani) recipe #107591 by Egyptian John

    Paradise Pumpkin Pie recipe #76227 Oops.. sorry... this one is a shameless promotion.

    I mandated once that we would participate in the Luge for the Olympic Games in Sparta , but my advisors whispered that since we had no snow, perhaps rowing would be more realistic. They said I was in Da Nile (oh no, bad pun).
    As we marched thru Troy on our way to Sparta, we saw some artisans building a giant papier mache camel… we couldn’t imagine what they would use it for. My goodness, you could probably fit an army inside.

    Life is good for the Queen of Egypt.
    Sat Jun 25, 2005 5:52 pm Groupie

    W O M E N
    A N C I E N T
    E G Y P T



    We would like to introduce you to our friend and guide."Neferet" her name
    means Beautiful Woman. She will tell us about her daily life and some of
    the customs of ancient Egypt.
    She is 26 years old and married to Tiy, a professional Scribe . They have
    two children, a boy aged 10 and a girl aged 8.With his role as scribe they
    are considered " Upper Middleclass" and lead a very comfortable life.
    They have seven domestic servants - a doorman that guards the entrance to
    their house 24 hours a day, a personal maid that assists Neferet with her
    ritual bath and many other personal tasks. They also have a weaver of cloth
    that designs and sews all their clothes.
    There are three servants to perform
    all the household tasks and do the cooking. Two of these domestic servants
    are considered the lowest of the servants and are assigned the menial tasks
    while the head cook supervises them in their daily tasks
    Being an Upper Middleclass family they also have property where their fresh
    fruits and vegetables are raised on the shore of the Nile laborers tend
    their crops. Neferet must have jewelary, artifacts and the best utensils in
    her home to compliment their station in life. This necessitates that they
    have access to a potter, a beer maker, an artisan of fine arts, and a cobbler to meet their
    special desires.

    This is her life, meeting her responsibilities, enjoying her previledges to
    be an equal partner with her husband Tiy in Ancient Egypt.

    Neferet has chosen to to a ritual cleansing at home today as opposed to bathing at the river. Egyptian tradition dictates that physical and spiritual cleanliness is the most important and so she prepares her bath in a large basin. Neferet takes one of two small bowls and fills it with water. She holds this in both hands in front of her and chants the cleansing ritual of her ancestry:
    O Water may you remove all evil,
    As Ra who bathes in the Lake of Rushes,
    May Heru wash my flesh,
    May Djehuty cleanse my feet,
    May Shu lift me up and Nut take my hand.
    Neferet then sets the bowl of water aside and lifts the second bowl which is filled with salt and continues the ritual:

    It is pure, it is pure,
    My natron is the natron of Heru and the natron of Heru is my natron.
    My natron is the natron of Sutekh and the natron of Sutekh is my natron.
    My natron is the natron of Djehuty, and the natron of Djehuty is my natron.
    My natron is the natron of Geb and the natron of Geb is my natron.
    My mouth is the mouth of a milking calf on the day that I was born.
    Neferet then mixes several grains of the salt with the water in the bowl.
    She swishes some of this salt water around in her mouth and spits it out.
    She then dabs some of the mixture into her ears. Lastly, she pour the rest of this into her bath.

    She is now able to enjoy bathing with her favourite Golden Milk Bath (by JustaQT)
    She loves the feel of her skin after she has used her Exfoliating Body Scrub (by venus2) and she finishes off her bath with Almond Oil Lotion (by Charishma Ramchandani), she smells and feels wonderful, ready to dress and start her day.

    Neferet had finished her morning bath and asked her servant, who wore just a loin cloth in the heat, to bring her several sets of clothing, so she could chose which she wished to wear for the morning. It was so warm today she thought something loose and flowing would feel good. But first she would apply her kohl eye makeup. Then, with her servant’s help she arranged her wig for the evening visit with friends. A small ball of beeswax impregnated with perfumed oil would sit atop and the beeswax would melt from the heat of the room releasing a lovely scent.

    Once done with that, she chose a nice white pleated linen, loose fitting garment for her morning tasks.

    She wore an amulet around her neck, Ankh ~ The symbol of life, and several rings on her fingers. Her husband Tiy had given her a beautiful yellow ring which she favoured and wore most days, there were others she wore often.

    Neferet felt fortunate that Tiy was a scribe and could afford to give her lovely gifts and make a good life for her and the children. The children came running in to say good morning, they wore nothing, clothing was neither needed nor practical for them in the heat, but on occasion they would wear loin cloths.
    Later in the day Neferet would dress more formaly as would Tiy, for their visit with friends. With her perfumed wig she chose a body form fitting garment and some heavier jewelry.
    She used her hand mirror to look upon her back to be sure her servant had pulled it into place perfectly. She would wear sandals tonight instead of going barefoot.

    After Neferet was satisfied with her appearance, she called for the servant to bring her children to her. They had been bathed and cared for by the servants this morning. Merab, her son, had a shaved head with a side lock, braided, on the right side of his head. Hoteb, her daughter, wore her hair
    in pig tails. Both were adorned with amulets and bracelets. Neither child wore clothing as it was too hot.
    Neferet went outside with the children to play for a while before they started their daily activities. She watched Merab playing with throwing sticks and playing with his toy boat; Hoteb playing with a new kitten.

    She thought about how she treasured her children. She had previously lost two babies to illness
    during their first year. Merab was already in the third year of his Temple school education to become a scribe like his father. In about two years, he would begin to practice his trade in preparation for providing for his own
    family a few years later.
    It was time to take care of the daily chores, so Neferet sent Merab off to school. Hoteb would help her with the household chores and the weaver would begin to teach Hoteb the basics or weaving. Neferet had to make sure that Hoteb learned how to care for her own household
    when she married around age 13. This would be a busy day, as a big dinner was planned for the evening with friends.

    Neferet took her responsibilities as home supervisor very seriously and always rose early to assign tasks, plan the daily menu and see to it that all would please her children, herself and especially husband Tiy.
    The kitchen in her house was an outside room that had ample ventilation, They cooked over open fires and in Clay ovens. Their foods were stored in sealed clay pots
    There were many things to be done in the kitchen each day to prepare the days' meals - the grains needed to be hand ground before making the daily fresh bread called cyllestis It was baked in a cylindrical Clay Oven.
    [IMG] The Flat bread.
    The Oven was fuelled by wood or charcoal . Charcoal was very expensive and hard to find so it was rarely used..
    The staple food was the coarse flat bread and the beverage of choice was beer although in this Upper Middleclass home Wine was also served..
    Because they had land there was some variety to their menu. They had Onions,, radishes, leeks, Figs, grapes, even cucumber. Often their daily staple ( still eaten today) was called: Ful Medames 1/12lb Ful or Fava beans,2-4 cloves crushed garlic- cook the beans until tender add garlic and serve hot.
    Cultivated meat was not common - there was no land to raise cattle or sheep and only the very wealthy had it in their diets. Neferet's family food included fish from the Nile river and fowl such as geese found in the nearby marsh lands.
    There were herbs and spices to flavor their food-garlic, dill, cumin, coriander to name a few and vinegar.
    Their standard utensils that they used - wooden spoons, a clay sieve, a two handled clay cooking vessel but to serve their meal they had platters and bowls made of bronze and even silver. Tiy's cup, a gift from a senior scribe.
    The kitchen ritual took up much of Neferet's time every day.

    Every day life in Ancient Egypt

    As we can see from Neferet' story her day kept her very busy, her bathing ritual was a relaxing part of her day, her jewelary and clothes gave her status among peers, her children were her pride and her responsibility to groom into able adults, the kitchen was as important in those days as it is today. We did not delve into outside activities because she believes that her role as an equal partner centers around her supervisory role in the home
    No, life in ancient Egypt may not have been perfect they had floods, famine and disease but compared to many other civilizations they were far ahead.

    The Rascals hope that you have enjoyed this presentation as much as we enjoyed putting it together
    Sun Jun 26, 2005 9:53 pm Groupie

    Long, long, LONG ago, in a time far away we know as Ancient Egypt, there was a beautiful young woman named Tutankh-Maenad, meaning “living image of Maenad”. Tutankh was a young woman who owned and operated her own Egyptian day spa called The Lotus Room, in the city of Thebes. Tutankh employed many young men and women and business was booming. In a typical day they would have very important clients, who needed various services in order to sustain their prominent status in their culture, which was very dependent and looking good, and particularly smelling great. After all, everyone knows that cleanliness is godliness.

    Many perfumes, lots of makeup, and lotions for pampering await the clients of The Lotus Room:

    Before they open for business, Tutankh and her staff make sure everything is prepared, including having refreshments available. Her spa would not be accepted if she did not have available the most popular drink of Egyptian culture… BEER!!. So she quickly prepares the beer recipe she knows her clients will love.

    Their first client of the day is a woman in desperate need of makeup applications, she is very concerned that her age is starting to show.

    First, her skin needs a good cleansing, so Tutankh gets out her Egyptian Cleanser, and begins her work. She will definitely NOT forget the Kohl around her clients eyes, a must to keep the glare of the sun away. She assures her client she looks beautiful.

    Next is a man in need of a head shaving, she refers him to a young man on her staff, and he gets to work:

    As he is working, Tutankh does check out the male client that she has not seen before this day. He is very attractive, and though she has a partner, she thinks of her sister, who is already 12 years old! She imagines her possibly falling in love with one of her available young male clients:

    Even the amazing and very esteemed Queen Neferu has her hair done here:

    She also of course requested fragrance treatments, so she would be smelling her best. The staff prepared especially for her: Milk Bath That Cleopatra Would Love and Deodorant Powder

    All in a day’s work at The Lotus room, Tutankh loves her work and feels good in the fact that she is contributing to her fellow Egyptians ever-important hygiene!

    Posting for The Mighty Maenads!! icon_biggrin.gif
    Sun Jun 26, 2005 11:40 pm Groupie
    SAUCY SIRENS SERIOUS CONCEPTION OF Uppity Women of Ancient Times(ref. source... Vicki Leon
    Greetings Loyal Subjects of the Great Land of Pharaohs, Physicians, Fat Cats and Filly-Fanciers.
    My name is Camelera Dollaria; I am CEO of the largest Financial Advisors in Egypt.... "Duey, Cheatum and Howe"..

    My name sounds Italian because daddy had a roving eye before my mamma put a hole in his dinghy, so he could no longer paddle his fanny up the Med, Red, or Dead...

    Daddy was Pharaoh, yes he was, but since his untimely demise, the Pharaoh business has gone to Mommy Dearest... She rules with stern looks, time outs, a mean looking asp and wire coat hangers on which she hangs the asps when not in use.
    In the Pharaoh household, I am two-I.C. Let me tell you a little something about Pharaoh-Land... We are rulers of the world, Chiefs of Gods Graves and Concubines.

    In business and industry, no one passes; all pay big taxes to support me, my mamma and our pharaoh-dom... Every full moon someone tries to off the Pharaoh, but you have to get up prettttty early in the new moon to put one over on ole Camelera Dollaria and her PM (Pharaoh Mamma)...

    Women of Egypt enjoy many legal equal rights with men (not everything was equal)--but back in the ancient world, these things women had rights to was unheard of: a woman could:
    *own, sell, and manage private property*: land, slaves, servants (servants are different from slaves since they are free people who worked in exchange of some type of payment), livestock, money, etc...

    *conclude any kind of legal settlement*: a woman could, on her own, sue anyone and there are records of women winning their cases.
    *be a contracting partner*: to weddings (she could write stipulation in the marriage contract), divorces,
    *had significant property rights*: women acquired property either through, gifts, inheritance (from parents or husband), or through purchasing it herself with money/goods she earned by working or from loans. she had a claim to 1/3 of property her and her husband accrued after their marriage. If she brought anything of her own into the marriage (money, property, etc..) it was to be returned to her upon divorce. While 2/3 of a husband's property was split up to his children as inheritance, a woman could decide to whom her own private property would go to (her children or anyone else).
    *women were able to freely walk around outside on their own--in the ancient worlds, this was rare ******************************
    Career: higher class women generally stayed in the home as their husbands provided for them so their duty was the the house and the children, although she most likely would have had slaves/servants whom she supervised to make sure everything was done correctly. If she could not find any more to occupy her time sometimes she took on religious positions such as a priestess for a certain godded or sometimes even a certain god.

    Women who were not from the higher classes had many different jobs such as:
    dancers music (singing and playing instruments)

    weaving mourning (hired women to grieve at funerals!)
    some women who had good connections could find work such as domestic supervisors/administrators--with such titles as
    :Supervisor of the Cloth
    Supervisor of the Wig Workshop Supervisor to the Dancers of the Pharaoh it was rare, but some women even held high ranking positions as managers or treasurers.

    Ancient cosmetics & fragrances:

    A treat this evening… being taken out for dinner… One must go and mix burnt almonds, oxidized copper, lead, ash and ochre to make our kohl. If I can’t make my eyes almond shaped then Nefertiti knows what I shall do. With this mix my eyes will be as beautiful as Cleopatra’s!!! It’s so easy to apply with a small stick….dip the stick in and run it around the outside of my eyes. How I love kohl!
    I have mixed the red clay and water and will apply it to my cheeks and lips….Cleo ain’t gonna know what hit her… gorgeous do I look now!!!!! My cheeks are as flushed as if I’d been out on a camel ride and my lips look as though they have been kissed a hundred times.... But I am so cute! Even the court eunochs hanker after my beauty
    OMG – just look at my nails – gosh that Henna does a great job….I just so love the orange colour!!!! Just wait till Cleo sees me…she is going to be so jealous!! She is probably bald anyway, the women and men took great delight in removing all of their body hair, including shaving their pate; much to the chagrin of the Greeks. This is why both men and women wear those elaborate head pieces. We shave our heads and then wear wigs... Go figure. Vidal Sassoon, where were you when we needed you???
    Bring on the camels….I am ready for a night out!!!!!

    Notice how she is clinging to her male counterpart.. I am not sure if they are married or just hanging together. I know I would rather be playing mah jong with my girl friends than having to cater to the whims of my male counterpart..... He is looking around the room, trying to see if his other chickies are around...... (let me see... where is my asp?)


    Let me tell you something about our kitchen and bar.

    Gibna With Tamatum or Cheese With Tomatoes

    Egyptians were very secure in that the Nile valley always yielded enough crops to feed the country, even when famine was present in other nearby parts of the world. The basic food and drink was bread and beer, were made from the main crops they grew, wheat and barley, wheat was the most important crop in ancient Egypt, it was used to make many types of bread, including pastries and cakes. The corn was often stored in communal granaries.

    Coconut Halva (Basbousa)

    Important field crops were sesame, beans and chickpeas, lettuce, onions, leeks, dill, grapes, melons and gourds Beer was made from barley, and was the main drink for common people in every day life. Since there was no sugar, honey was used as a sweetener by the rich, and poor people used dates and fruit juices.

    Egyptians liked strong-tasting vegetables such as garlic and onions. They thought these were good for the health. They also ate pea crops and beans, lettuce, cucumbers, and leeks. Vegetables were often served with an oil and vinegar dressing. Figs, dates, pomegranates and grapes were the only fruits that could be grown in the hot climate. Ordinary people ate fish and poultry.

    Pharaonic Chicken #125672

    On special occasions they ate sheep, goat, or pig; but there was little grazing land available so meat was expensive and most people ate it only on festive occasions. Egyptians stored their food in jars and granaries. Fish and meat had to be especially prepared for storage. One method was salting. Another was to hang the fish in the sun, which baked them dry. They had ovens, and knew how to boil roast, and fry food. There were few kitchen tools: pestles, mortars, and sieves.

    Wine has an extensive history in Egypt. By the third millenium BC, kings of the first dynasty had extensive cellars. Egyptians produced several different kinds, the Old Kingdom favored red wine, white was only produced from the Middle Kingdom onwards.

    The vineyards of ancient Egypt were different from the modern methods. Grapes were hand picked, then placed in a vat for traditional treading on the grapes, or in special presses adding heat to the must in order to make the wine sweet.

    Detail from a drawing of hieroglyphics found on a jar stopper from a royal tomb at Abydos, Egypt. The arrow points to the early hieroglyphic sign for "grapevine/vineyard."

    The resultant juice was poured through a cloth filter, and then into earthenware jars, where they would be sealed with natural tar and left to ferment.. When ready, these jugs were sealed and marked with the date, name of the vineyard and the person in charge of the wine. When served, it was poured into shallow vessels with a short stem. The Egyptians kept accurate records of their vintages, and quality of their wines, each jar was clearly labeled with it's own vintage, and quality. Wine was very expensive to drink. The main consumption took place as an offering to the gods and dead, as well as between the king, nobles, and the priests in temple ceremonies and party banquets, in party scenes on the tomb walls, there are a number of images depicting the guests throwing up or being carried home because of their drunken state, drunkedness was seen as an amusement to the ancient Egyptians.
    The temples associated with the goddesses had their own vineyards to make sure that the celebrants had enough wine for the rituals. Hathor was the goddess of wine and beer, as well as goddess of love and destruction.
    Hathor is my best friend... Nobody messes with her; she has the largest asp in Egypt.... Hathor keeps this picture of Sethi in her wallet... I don't know what she ever saw in him...

    Mon Jun 27, 2005 7:48 am Groupie
    Well done Evelyn!!!
    Mon Jun 27, 2005 8:10 am Groupie
    Well done...SuperSonicSirenSmuf!!!

    Susie D
    Mon Jun 27, 2005 8:12 am
    Forum Host
    Beautiful job teams!!!! Clapping Hands
    Mon Jun 27, 2005 9:15 am Groupie
    Mommy Dearest and coat hangers....too funny icon_lol.gif
    Mon Jun 27, 2005 9:50 am Groupie
    Every team did a super job but I really have to say that the saucy Sirens out did themselves- super job.
    Mon Jun 27, 2005 11:03 am
    Forum Host
    these have been so much fun to read! icon_lol.gif
    Mon Jun 27, 2005 11:12 am Groupie
    I thoroughly enjoyed everyone's life story. Great job.
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