Once a luxury only for the rich, "white gold" used to come in blocks, not granulated. Sugar cane and sugar beets are the common sources of this pentiful sweetener, which also lends tenderness to doughs, stability to mixtures, browning properties to baked goods and perservative qualities in large quantities. Granulated or white sugar is the common form, though superfine (known as castor) dissolves better in baking. Confectioner's or powdered sugar is often used decoratively, as are sugar crystals or decorating suar. Brown sugar is simply white sugar combined with molasses, not be be confused with raw sugar, the residue left after sugarcane has been processed ro remove the molasses and refine the sugar crystals.
All granulated sugar can be kept indefinitely if tightly sealed and kept in a cool, dry place.
1 cup corn syrup or 1 cup honey + decrease liquid called for in recipe by 1/4 cup = 1 cup granulated sugar; 1 cup firmly packed brown sugar = 1 cup granulated sugar; Caster sugar is superfine sugar 1 cup = 1 cup granulated